First to come, the pictorialism, i.e. skipping the very pre-history of photogryphy where the technology it self was being developed, such as daguerotype and similar.
It dominated photography during the later 19th and early 20th centuries. The photographer has somehow manipulated what would otherwise be a straightforward photograph as a means of "creating" an image rather than simply recording it. Typically, a pictorial photograph appears to lack a sharp focus (some more so than others), is printed in one or more colors other than black-and-white (ranging from warm brown to deep blue) and may have visible brush strokes or other manipulation of the surface. For the pictorialist, a photograph, like a painting, drawing or engraving, was a way of projecting an emotional intent into the viewer's realm of imagination.
Biggest names such as Alfred Stieglitz or Edward Steichern.
Alfred Stieglitz photo
Famous pictorialist portrat from Paul Haviland